地質學榮譽證

1) 解釋下列各地質學名詞︰

a) 三角洲
b) 圓形山谷(凹地)
c) 沙咀
d) 臺地
e) 滲穴
f) 沖積扇
g) 牛軛湖
h) 背斜層
i) 冰磧石
j) 向斜層

2) 回答下列各項︰

a) 比較盾狀火山和複式火山
b) 冰河是怎樣移動並留下甚麼證據
c) 沉積物是怎樣形成
d) 描述各種山嶺的種類
e) 為何河流在轉彎處的外側,經常內陷

3) 知道下列各項為何種岩石(沉積岩、變質岩和火成岩)︰

a) 花崗岩
b) 大理石
c) 沙岩
d) 熔岩
e) 礫岩
f) 石灰岩
g) 板岩
h) 玄武岩
i) 頁岩
j) 片麻岩

4) 畫出或拍攝下列各項地理特徵︰

a) 沉積岩層,並且越底部越粗糙,越近頂層越纖細 (通常稱作粒級層理)
b) 沙土的波紋 (以箭咀顯示水流方向)
c) 溝蝕
d) 山泥傾瀉 (通常發生在大雨或洪水後,泥土開始變乾時)
e) 河岸的土壤剖面 (可以看見泥土的顏色,從表面開始向下越來越淺色)
f) 沙洲 (可見於河川或沿海)

 

Level 1

English Version:

1. Give the geological meaning of the following words:
a. delta
b. cirque
c. sand spit
d. mesa
e. sinkhole
f. alluvial fan
g. oxbow lake
h. anticline
i. moraine
j. syncline

2. Describe:
a. a shield volcano as compared to a composite volcano.
b. how a glacier moves and what evidences it leaves behind.
c. how sediments are laid down by water.
d. the different types of mountains.
e. why a river or stream bank often keeps caving in on the outside of a bend.

3. Know what category of rocks (sedimentary, metamorphic rock, or igneous) the following rocks are:
a. Granite
b. Marble
c. Sandstone
d. Lava
e. Conglomerate
f. Limestone
g. Slate
h. Basalt
i. Shale
j. Gneiss

4. Take a picture or make a sketch of each of the following geological features:
a. A bed of sediment that is coarser at the bottom and finer toward the top. (This is called normal graded bedding.)
b. Ripple marks in sand or mud. (Show with an arrow the current direction if possible.)
c. Gulley erosion
d. Mud cracks. (These can usually be found after a heavy rain or flood when mud starts to dry.)
e. Soil profile along a stream bank or road cut. (You should be able to see how soil usually becomes lighter colored downward from the surface of the ground.)
f. A sand bar. (Sand bars can be found in streams, rivers or along the ocean.)

 

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